Tailoring through Colloidal Processing


17th September. New Paper on line. Z. Gonzalez, J. Yus, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, J. Dewalque, L. Manceriu, C. Henrist, B. Ferrari, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.09.018

This paper describes a well-compacted and crack-free TiO2 multilayer coatings manufactured from a colloidal approach. Processing methodology has been designed to obtain interconnected microstructures, free of defects and heterogeneities. The sintering process was at low temperature, 450º C, allowed open microarchitectures without complete densification and favoring the dye adsorption. A thickness of 12.8 µm resulted in a successful dye loading of 4.52 × 10-10 mol·mm-2 and a photoefficiency of 5.7%, both in the range of the others particulate systems.

The paper contains some result of the collaboration between our Group and the Group of Research in Energy and ENvironment from Materials (GREEnMat) at the University of Liege. This successful collaboration has been supported by JECSTrust throught a Frontiers of Research Grant awarded to our colleague Z. Gonzalez, who spent 3 months in the GREEnMat Lab.


7th September. Congratulations to Joaquin Yus as he has been awarded the Best Poster Prize presented at 69th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry with the poster entitled "Electrophoretic Deposition of a GO/Ni(OH)2 Composite Material produced by Hetereocoagulation as promising Supercapacitor Electrode". The work is a part of his thesis funded by the Regional Government through the European Union´s Young Employment Iniciative (YEI).


7th SeptemberOur team has participated in the 69th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry organized in Bologna.
Begoña Ferrari chaired the Symposium 12: Electrophoretic Deposition of Functional Coatings: from Materials Science to Biotechnology.

Our colleagues presented the following posters:

  • EPD of Halloysite clay nanotubes/gelatin composites for drug delivery.
  • TiO2 nanostructured films prepared by colloidal routes for application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.
  • Electrophoretic Deposition of a GO/Ni(OH)2 Composite Material produced by Hetereocoagulation as promising Supercapacitor Electrode

Zoilo González presented the oral communication “Colloidal Strategies to shape Core-Shell based films by EPD and their Electrochemical Performance as Pseudocapacitor electrodes” and Joaquín Yus presented the paper "Electron Transport Through Mesoporous and Interconnected Ni-Based Microstructures Shaped by Electrophoretic Deposition " with some of their recent results in colloidal processing for supercapacitors.


1st September. New Paper on line. P. Alvaredo, M. Dios, B. Ferrari and E. Gordo, “Understanding of wetting and solubility behavior of Fe binder on Ti(C,N) cermets”, J. Alloys. Comp. 770 (5) 17-25 (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.07.243

Iron is considered as the main alternative binder in cermets; however proper compositions are still under development as it is necessary to improve the sintering. This work propose the use of Ni as sintering aid to improve the wettability without the introduction of secondary phases. The article shows a comprehensive study of the high temperature behavior, in terms of solubility and wettability, of the system FeNi/Ti(C,N) , and the results are compared with the study of the conventional system Ni/Ti(C,N). A better understanding of the high temperature behavior between binder and reinforcement allows to design new compositions and to search strategies to improve the densification of the cermets.


30th AugustCongratulations to Ana Ferrandez as her Oral Poster Presentation of the work entitled ""Biodegradable PLA/Mg films for tissues regeneration" in the 10th Symposium on Biodegradable Metals has been awared as the Best Poster Presentation. The work is a part of the Proyect Multimat Challenge supported by the Regional Goverment of Madrid and presents the results of the collaborative actions between CENIM-CSIC, ICV-CSIC and the Institute of Biomaterials (Univ. Erlangen). [Videonews]


15th August. New Paper. P. Alvaredo, J. Escribano, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sánchez-Herencia and E. Gordo, “Steel binder cermets processed by combination of colloidal processing and powder metallurgy”, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 74, 1-6 (2018). doi:10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.02.018

Colloidal techniques are proposed to overcome the agglomeration of Ti(C,N) particles and the low compressibility of the metal-ceramic blends. Aqueous suspensions of steel powders and Ti(C,N) particles are prepared followed by spray-dry to obtain spherical granules able to be processed by pressing and sintering, avoiding oxidation of powders. The agglomerates present higher compressibility than blends, and sintered materials show higher density and hardness.

2nd August. E. Macarena García has reached one movility grant from the JECS Trust to spend three months at the Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (CNR-Italy) in Faenza working under the supervision of Dr Laura Silvestroni. She is going to study the sintering of WC powders with sintering aids dispersed by colloidal method. She will deal with advenced sintering techniques such as sintering under vacuum and/or controlled atmosphere and Hot Press.

19th July. Javier González defended his Grade Final Project entitled "Additive manufacture of polymer matrix composite materials with high concentration of inorganic load for the processing of mesoporous 100% inorganic hydroxiapatite implants", obtaining outstanding qualification. While the development of the proyect the Start-Up owned by Javier won the prize as best 3D printing project for osseous 3D printing during the national eHealth congress .


22nd June. New Paper online. T. Zimmermann, A. Ferrandez-Montero, M. Lieblich, B. Ferrari, J.L. González-Carrasco, W.D. Müller, A.D. Schwitalla, “In vitro degradation of a biodegradable polylactic acid/magnesium composite as potential bone augmentation material in the presence of titanium and PEEK dental implants”, Dent. Mater. 74, In Press (2018). doi:10.1016/j.dental.2018.06.009

This study assess the degradation behavior by measuring the H2 release of a biodegradable composite consisting of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with 30% wt. spherical magnesium microparticles (PLA/Mg) as potential bone augmentation material in combination with dental implants of either titanium or polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in order to evaluate the potential influence of the titanium dental implants on the corrosion behavior of the Mg particles within the PLA matrix.

Regarding the similar values of the degradation depending H2 release of the two implant material groups, the co-implantation of a PLA/Mg composite is not only possible with new metal-free implant materials such as PEEK, but also with conventional implants of titanium.

6th June. Zoilo González and Begoña Ferrari have participated in the CIMTEC 2018
(14th International Ceramics Congress) hold in Perugia, Italy. Z. Gonzalez presented the oral communications entitled: "Tailoring the Microstructure of TiO2 Photoactive Electrodes by using Cellulose Nanofibers and by Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Absorption" in the Session on Novel Synthesis and Processing, while B Ferrari presented the Invited Oral communication "Layer by Layer Modification of Nanoparticles Surfaces in Suspension: From Order to Chaos during the Nanostructured Growth of a Ceramic Film" during the sesion of Colloidal Processing.

7th MayFarewell picture of Joaquin Yus with the group of Dr. Carmen Galassi (Institute of science and technology for Ceramics, ISTEC - CNR), after his stay of three months in the Electroceramics and  Colloidal Processing group working in the research line about InkJet printing of ceramics suspensions with applications in Supercapacitors. The stay has been supported by a JECS Trust mobility grant. It has been a great time for him and we look forward to meet with the Dr. Carmen Galassi research group in Bologna during the 69th Annual ISE Meeting by September.

13th April. Our group has attended the III annual meeting of the Multimat Project held at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos I in Mostoles. As in previous issues students PhD students presented their work in progress, been this a good oportunity to get an overview of the advances and subjects the different partners are going on. Macarena García presented, into the Energy Challenge sesion, her most recent results in colloidal processing of tungsten compounds. Ana Ferrandez presented the new result on the colloidal an approach to processing of Magnesium-PLA composites into the Health Challenge..


9th April. Our colleague Zolilo González has earned a "Juan de la Cierva - Incorporación" grant to develop its research within our group during the next two years. This is a very competitive contract for young researchers who defended their PhD in the last five years and for what both the hosting group and the candidate curriculum are evaluated. Congrat to all the group and speccialy to Zoilo.


3rd March. Farewell party to wish Behnam Abdollahy (Univ. Teheran) and Laura Ramos (Univ. Erlangen) a safe trip back to home, aftern their stay in our group working in the reserach line about processing of biomaterials. Behnam has been with us for six months processing and characterizing biomaterials with drug carriers and Laura, during two months, has studied the processing of bioactive coatings on metallic substrates by EPD. It has been a great time for all and we look forward to see they again soon.

J Eur Ceram Soc

15th February. New Paper. C. Mendoza, Z. Gonzalez, E. Gordo, B. Ferrari and Y. Castro, “Protective nature of nano-TiN coatings shaped by EPD on Ti substrates”, J. Eur Ceram. Soc, 38 (2) 495-500 (2017)doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.046.

Uniform and dense TiN coatings have been obtained onto substrates of Ti by Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD). A deposition time of 5 min has been enough to obtain a cohesive layer of 7–8 μm in thickness. The coatings were thermally treated in vacuum atmosphere at 1200 °C for 1 h with heating and cooling rates of 5 °C min−1. The hardness and corrosion resistance of TiN coatings have been evaluated. The nanohardness values of the polished samples have been increased from 2.8–4.8 GPa up to 6.5–8.5 GPa. Besides, the corrosion current density has been reduced more than one order of magnitude obtaining a protective efficiency of 82%. These values demonstrate the strong impact of the colloidal processing over the specific properties of the material.

7th February. Zoilo González has participated in the JICI IV (Meeting of Young Researchers on Colloids and Interfaces) hold in Córdoba from 7th to 9th of February. He presented the oral communication entitled "Colloidal Processing of Ceramic Semiconductor of NiO and TiO2 for Energy Storage-Harvesting Devices"

5th February. Our Group has had an intense participation in the 42th edition of the Alfa de Oro awards celebrated during CEVISAMA2018, the International fair for Architectural Ceramic, Natural Stone, Raw Materials, Glazes, Frits and Machinery. Javier Sánchez has been member of the Jury and Begoña Ferrari, as General Secretary of the Spanish Ceramic Society conducted the Prize ceremony. The Alfa de Oro Awards are given by the Spanish Ceramic Society to recognize the R+D efforts of ceramic industries and related companies on its fabrication processes and final products.

Current Issue
1st February. Dr. Begoña Ferrari is one of the co-editors of the ECES Transactions Issue No. 1 Electrophoretic Deposition VI recently published (vol. 82, No. 1, 2018) containing papers presented at the VI International Conference on Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications. This book includes the paper by J.L. Yus, Dr. Z. Gonzalez and E. Chinarro, entitled “The Effect of the Substrate on the Conductivity of NiO Electrodes in Electrochemical Capacitor Shaped by Electrophoretic Deposition” doi:10.1149/08201.0097ecst.

29th January. Joaquin Yus is to spent three months at the Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (CNR-Italy) in Faenza working with the Prof. Carmen Galassi Group. He is to study printable aqueous inks based on modified ceramic semiconductor nanoparticles for the fabrication of micro‐supercapacitors by Inkjet Printing. The stay is supported by the JECS Trust by a mobility action entitled "Inkjet printing of Ni‐based suspensions for micro‐pseudocapacitors".


25th January. New Paper Published. M.Dios, I. Kraleva, Z. Gonzalez, P.Alvaredo, B.Ferrari, E.Gordo and R.Bermejo,, “Mechanical Characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets fabricated through different colloidal processing routes”, J. Alloys Compd., 732 806-87(2018).. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.10.274

It is focused on the mechanical characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets processed through colloidal and powder metallurgy techniques, analyzing the effect of carbon on mechanical response. It is uncovered the direct relationships between mechanical properties and processing route were obtained. The fracture mechanisms observed are dimple ductile and transgranular cleavage.

2nd January. Farewell. We start the year saying goodby to Miguel de Dios who has got a job at Air Liquide. He has started in the new position only fifteen days after his thesis defense!!!. Congratulation, good luck and see you soon!!!




24th December. The members of the Taioliring Through Colloidal Processing´s Group wish you a Merry Christmas and a very Happy year 2018. May all your dreams come true.

20th December. Thesis Defense. Miguel de Dios defended at the UC3M hir PhD Thesis entitled: "Synthesis, Processing and Mechanical Characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets through the combination of Colloidal and Powder Metallurgy techniques".
The international evaluation committee was composed by Prof. Sofía Tsipas (UC3M) , Dr.Raquel de Oro (TU Wien) and Dr. A.Javier Sanchez-Herencia(ICV-CSIC) who granted Miguel´s thesis report and exposition with the Cum Laude and International mentions. Congratulations!!

11th December. Our group has awared a grant to support a predoctoral student during two year. Funds for the grant came from the European Union through the Young Employment Iniciative (YEI), the Regional Government and from the group. Begoña Ferrari is to supervise the work of the student in surface modification of semiconductor materials and it implications in its electrochemical response.

Journal of Alloys and Compounds
15th November. New Paper. M.Dios, Z. Gonzalez, P.Alvaredo, R.Bermejo, E. Gordo and B. Ferrari, “Novel colloidal approach for the microstructural improvement in Ti(C,N)/FeNi cermets”, J. Alloys Compd. 724 (15) doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.07.034 (2017).
It is focused on the processing of Ti(C,N)-based cermets using fine powders (1–3 μm) in suspension. By combining colloidal and powder metallurgy techniques the uniformity of the phase distribution and its reactivity is promoted, leading to 99.9% dense cermets with Hardness values as high as 1300HV30.


8th November. New Paper. J. Yus, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, A. Caballero, J. Morales and Z. Gonzalez, “In Situ Synthesis and Electrophoretic Deposition of NiO/Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Its Application as Pseudocapacitor”,Coatings, 7, (11) 193 (2017). doi:10.3390/coatings7110193

NiO/Ni core–shell hybrid nanostructures as binder-free electrodes to their application in supercapacitors are synthesized and processed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in aqueos media. After thermal treatment the necks created among ceramic-metallic nanoparticles preserve the structural integrity of the microstructure avoiding avoiding the employment of binders and enhancing in the interparticles connectivity.
Specific capacitance of NiO/Ni electrodes is 755 F/g. This value doubles the results of simple NiO nanoplatelets due to the presence of metallic Ni nanoparticles.


1st November. New Paper. E. Espinosa, R. Sánchez, Z. González, J. Domínguez-Robles, B. Ferrari, A. Rodríguez, “Rapidly growing vegetables as new sources for lignocellulose nanofibre isolation: Physicochemical, thermal and rheological characterisation”,Carbohydrate Polym., 175, 27-37 (2017). doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.07.055

The aim of this study has been to study the suitability of tagasaste and leucaena as new sources of biomass for lignocellulosic nanofibre production. LCNF were produced using three different pre-treatments, TEMPO-mediated oxidation, enzymatic treatment, or a mechanical process. XRD and FTIR analysis show that homogenisation has a strong negative effect on the crystallinity index; however, the higher lignin content of tagasaste (10%) protects the fibre, causing a smaller decrease in crystallinity. The thermal stability of LCNF is also affected by the high lignin content in the case of tagasaste, which exhibited maximum degradation temperatures of 340–315 °C, that were higher than those for leucaena (330–310 °C). A strong shear thinning behaviour was observed in most of the LCNF, which revealed a great degree of interconnectivity in the gel like-network.

1st November.Our group has participated in the Iberoamerican Workshop on Biomaterials for Medical Aplicacions hold at Conicet La Plata. Javier Sanchez presented the strategies for processing of porous inorganic structures from slurries and Begoña Ferarri our capabilites on odditive manufacturing of biomaterials. This workshop is framed in the activities of the i-link proyect we are participating in.

3rd October. Begoña Ferrari has presented the paper entitled "Film processing by EPD" in the VI Conference on Electrophoretic Deposition which is hold in Gyeongju (South Korea). The speach is included in a special symposium entitled “Fundamental Aspects of Electrophoretic Deposition” organized to celebrate the scientific career of Prof. O. Van der Biest on the year of his 70th birthday, highlighting his many contributions to the field of electrophoretic deposition.

Electrochimica Acta 1st September. New Paper. Z. Gonzalez, J.Yus, A.Caballero, J. Morales, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia and B. Ferrari, “Electrochemical performance of pseudo-capacitor electrodes fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition inducing Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets agglomeration by Layer-by-Layer”, Electrochim. Acta, 247 doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2017.07.043 (2017).
It presents the tuning of Ni(OH)2 surfaces with polyelectrolytes following a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) methodology and fixing the conditions of the EPD process. NiO films with a stable and extremely open macroporous structure were processed to coat Ni foams, improving the capacitive performance to values of specific capacitances of 650 F/g.