Tailoring through Colloidal Processing

13th April. Our group has attended the III annual meeting of the Multimat Project held at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos I in Mostoles. As in previous issues students PhD students presented their work in progress, been this a good oportunity to get an overview of the advances and subjects the different partners are going on. Macarena García presented, into the Energy Challenge sesion, her most recent results in colloidal processing of tungsten compounds. Ana Ferrandez presented the new result on the colloidal an approach to processing of Magnesium-PLA composites into the Health Challenge..


9th April. Our colleague Zolilo González has earned a "Juan de la Cierva - Incorporación" grant to develop its research within our group during the next two years. This is a very competitive contract for young researchers who defended their PhD in the last five years and for what both the hosting group and the candidate curriculum are evaluated. Congrat to all the group and speccialy to Zoilo.


3rd March. Farewell party to wish Behnam Abdollahy (Univ. Teheran) and Laura Ramos (Univ. Erlangen) a safe trip back to home, aftern their stay in our group working in the reserach line about processing of biomaterials. Behnam has been with us for six months processing and characterizing biomaterials with drug carriers and Laura, during two months, has studied the processing of bioactive coatings on metallic substrates by EPD. It has been a great time for all and we look forward to see they again soon.


23rd February. New Paper online. P. Alvaredo, J. Escribano, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sánchez-Herencia and E. Gordo, “Steel binder cermets processed by combination of colloidal processing and powder metallurgy”, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 74, 1-6 (2018). doi:10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.02.018

Colloidal techniques are proposed to overcome the agglomeration of Ti(C,N) particles and the low compressibility of the metal-ceramic blends. Aqueous suspensions of steel powders and Ti(C,N) particles are prepared followed by spray-dry to obtain spherical granules able to be processed by pressing and sintering, avoiding oxidation of powders. The agglomerates present higher compressibility than blends, and sintered materials show higher density and hardness.

7th February. Zoilo González has participated in the JICI IV (Meeting of Young Researchers on Colloids and Interfaces) hold in Córdoba from 7th to 9th of February. He presented the oral communication entitled "Colloidal Processing of Ceramic Semiconductor of NiO and TiO2 for Energy Storage-Harvesting Devices"

5th February. Our Group has had an intense participation in the 42th edition of the Alfa de Oro awards celebrated during CEVISAMA2018, the International fair for Architectural Ceramic, Natural Stone, Raw Materials, Glazes, Frits and Machinery. Javier Sánchez has been member of the Jury and Begoña Ferrari, as General Secretary of the Spanish Ceramic Society conducted the Prize ceremony. The Alfa de Oro Awards are given by the Spanish Ceramic Society to recognize the R+D efforts of ceramic industries and related companies on its fabrication processes and final products.

Current Issue
1st February. Dr. Begoña Ferrari is one of the co-editors of the ECES Transactions Issue No. 1 Electrophoretic Deposition VI recently published (vol. 82, No. 1, 2018) containing papers presented at the VI International Conference on Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications. This book includes the paper by J.L. Yus, Dr. Z. Gonzalez and E. Chinarro, entitled “The Effect of the Substrate on the Conductivity of NiO Electrodes in Electrochemical Capacitor Shaped by Electrophoretic Deposition”.

29th January. Joaquin Yus is to spent three months at the Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (CNR-Italy) in Faenza working with the Prof. Carmen Galassi Group. He is to study printable aqueous inks based on modified ceramic semiconductor nanoparticles for the fabrication of micro‐supercapacitors by Inkjet Printing. The stay is supported by the JECS Trust by a mobility action entitled "Inkjet printing of Ni‐based suspensions for micro‐pseudocapacitors".

2nd January. Farewell. We start the year saying goodby to Miguel de Dios who has got a job at Air Liquide. He has started in the new position only fifteen days after his thesis defense!!!. Congratulation, good luck and see you soon!!!




24th December. The members of the Taioliring Through Colloidal Processing´s Group wish you a Merry Christmas and a very Happy year 2018. May all your dreams come true.

20th December. Thesis Defense. Miguel de Dios defended at the UC3M hir PhD Thesis entitled: "Synthesis, Processing and Mechanical Characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets through the combination of Colloidal and Powder Metallurgy techniques".
The international evaluation committee was composed by Prof. Sofía Tsipas (UC3M) , Dr.Raquel de Oro (TU Wien) and Dr. A.Javier Sanchez-Herencia(ICV-CSIC) who granted Miguel´s thesis report and exposition with the Cum Laude and International mentions. Congratulations!!

11th December. Our group has awared a grant to support a predoctoral student during two year. Funds for the grant came from the European Union through the Young Employment Iniciative (YEI), the Regional Government and from the group. Begoña Ferrari is to supervise the work of the student in surface modification of semiconductor materials and it implications in its electrochemical response.


8th November. New Paper online. J. Yus, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, A. Caballero, J. Morales and Z. Gonzalez, “In Situ Synthesis and Electrophoretic Deposition of NiO/Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Its Application as Pseudocapacitor”,Coatings, 7, (11) 193 (2017). doi:10.3390/coatings7110193

NiO/Ni core–shell hybrid nanostructures as binder-free electrodes to their application in supercapacitors are synthesized and processed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in aqueos media. After thermal treatment the necks created among ceramic-metallic nanoparticles preserve the structural integrity of the microstructure avoiding avoiding the employment of binders and enhancing in the interparticles connectivity.
Specific capacitance of NiO/Ni electrodes is 755 F/g. This value doubles the results of simple NiO nanoplatelets due to the presence of metallic Ni nanoparticles.


7th November. New Paper. M.Dios, I. Kraleva, Z. Gonzalez, P.Alvaredo, B.Ferrari, E.Gordo and R.Bermejo,, “Mechanical Characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets fabricated through different colloidal processing routes”, J. Alloys Compd., 732 806-87(2018).. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.10.274

It is focused on the mechanical characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets processed through colloidal and powder metallurgy techniques, analyzing the effect of carbon on mechanical response. It is uncovered the direct relationships between mechanical properties and processing route were obtained. The fracture mechanisms observed are dimple ductile and transgranular cleavage.

1st November.Our group has participated in the Iberoamerican Workshop on Biomaterials for Medical Aplicacions hold at Conicet La Plata. Javier Sanchez presented the strategies for processing of porous inorganic structures from slurries and Begoña Ferarri our capabilites on odditive manufacturing of biomaterials. This workshop is framed in the activities of the i-link proyect we are participating in.

3rd October. Begoña Ferrari has presented the paper entitled "Film processing by EPD" in the VI Conference on Electrophoretic Deposition which is hold in Gyeongju (South Korea). The speach is included in a special symposium entitled “Fundamental Aspects of Electrophoretic Deposition” organized to celebrate the scientific career of Prof. O. Van der Biest on the year of his 70th birthday, highlighting his many contributions to the field of electrophoretic deposition.

J Eur Ceram Soc

29th September.
New Paper online. C. Mendoza, Z. Gonzalez, E. Gordo, B. Ferrari and Y. Castro, “Protective nature of nano-TiN coatings shaped by EPD on Ti substrates”, J. Eur Ceram. Soc, In Press doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.046 (2017).
Uniform and dense TiN coatings have been obtained onto substrates of Ti by Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD). A deposition time of 5 min has been enough to obtain a cohesive layer of 7–8 μm in thickness. The coatings were thermally treated in vacuum atmosphere at 1200 °C for 1 h with heating and cooling rates of 5 °C min−1. The hardness and corrosion resistance of TiN coatings have been evaluated. The nanohardness values of the polished samples have been increased from 2.8–4.8 GPa up to 6.5–8.5 GPa. Besides, the corrosion current density has been reduced more than one order of magnitude obtaining a protective efficiency of 82%. These values demonstrate the strong impact of the colloidal processing over the specific properties of the material.

Electrochimica Acta 8th July. New Paper online. Z. Gonzalez, J.Yus, A.Caballero, J. Morales, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia and B. Ferrari, “Electrochemical performance of pseudo-capacitor electrodes fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition inducing Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets agglomeration by Layer-by-Layer”, Electrochim. Acta, 247 doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2017.07.043 (2017).
It presents the tuning of Ni(OH)2 surfaces with polyelectrolytes following a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) methodology and fixing the conditions of the EPD process. NiO films with a stable and extremely open macroporous structure were processed to coat Ni foams, improving the capacitive performance to values of specific capacitances of 650 F/g.

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

7th July. New Paper online. M.Dios, Z. Gonzalez, P.Alvaredo, R.Bermejo, E. Gordo and B. Ferrari, “Novel colloidal approach for the microstructural improvement in Ti(C,N)/FeNi cermets”, J. Alloys Compd. 724 (15) doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.07.034 (2017).
It is focused on the processing of Ti(C,N)-based cermets using fine powders (1–3 μm) in suspension. By combining colloidal and powder metallurgy techniques the uniformity of the phase distribution and its reactivity is promoted, leading to 99.9% dense cermets with Hardness values as high as 1300HV30.


28th June, Our team has participated in the VI edition of the "Jornada de Jóvenes Investigadores (Young Researchers Day and Contest)" organized at the ICV-CSIC and supported by the Spanish Ceramic Society (SECV).

Miguel de Dios, overcoming the technological barriers, presented the paper entitled "Mechanical characterization and fractographic analysis of Ti(C, N)-FeNi cermets", with some results he obtained during his 3 months stay at Montanuniversität (Austria) working with Dr. Raul Bermejo .

Joaquín Yus presented the paper "Studies ion the electrochemical behaviour for Core/Shell Ni based particles, processed and sintetized by colloidal techniques" including some of his recent results in colloidal processing of supercapacitors.


23th June, He have received the visit of our colleague from France Claudine Filiâtre She is an spetiallist in Chemistry at Surfaces in the group “Matériaux et Surfaces Fonctionnalisés” of the Institute UTINAM – UMR CNRS 6213, at the University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté. After a productive discussion of the on going works of our group, some of them in common, she presented at the Institute some of their recent advances on transport and adhesion of particles funcionalizated with cationic surfactants or with a layer by layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte assembly in the conference entitled "Deposition and assembly of particles and polyelectrolytes: Influence of surfactants, type of polyelectrolyte, cations and pH".


22th June, Joaquín Yus has participated in the XIII National Meeting on Electroceramics hold in Cuenca. He presented the oral communication entitled "Estudio de las Propiedades Electroquímicas de Nanopartículas de NiO/Ni tipo Core/Shell Sintetizadas y Procesadas por Técnicas Coloidales".


6th June. The group has participated in the VI National and the 1st Iberoamerican Meeting of Powdermetallugy. The meeting was hold in Ciudad Real from 7th to 11th of June, being Begoña Ferrari was one of the chairs. The meeting has gained great interest in local and regional press media [media 1] [ media 2] [ media 3] [ media 4].

Javier Sánchez-Herencia presented the work entitled "Dispersión y estabilidad de suspensiones de partículas submicrónicas de W en agua para su!procesamiento por técnicas coloidales"

Miguel de Dios presented the communication entitled "Influencia del procesamiento en las propiedades mecánicas de CERMETS Ti(C,N)-FeNi"

Begoña Ferrari presented the work "Nuevos films biodegradables de PLDA/Mg-HA procesados por colaje en cinta"


1st June. Miguel de Dios presented the communication entitled "Mechanical characterization of Ti(C,N)-based cermets fabricated through different colloidal processing routes" by M.Dios, I. Kraleva, Z. González, P. Alvaredo, B. Ferrari, E. Gordo, R. Bermejo at the International Conference of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials hold during the 19th Plansee Seminar in Reutte, Austria.


18th May. New Paper online. Z. Gonzalez, C. Filiatre, C.C. Buron, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia and B. Ferrari, “Electrophoretic Deposition of Ni(OH)2 Nanoplatelets Modified by Polyelectrolyte Multilayers: Study of the Coatings Formation in a Laminar Flow Cell”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164 (7) doi: 10.1149/2.0801707jes (2017).

It presents the characteriztion of the particle surface modification of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 films with alternative monolayers of Polyethylenimine (PEI) and Polyacrylic Acid (PAA).


3rd May. Welcome to Macarena García who has joined to make the PhD supported by a Researchers Training grant associated to the ING4MATER project. She will work on the colloidal processing of tungsten based composites and their mechanical characterization in collaboration with the Politecnic University of Madrid.


30th April. Farewell to Ana Ferrandez is to spent three months working at the Prof. Aldo Boccacini´s Group in the Institute of Biomaterials (University of Erlangen-Nurembergof) to characterize new composites she has developed in her Thesis which can serve as tissue engineering scaffolds. The stay is supported by the JECS Trust by a mobility action entitled "In vitro studies of HAp/PLA materials processed by colloidal techniques and designed by additive manufacturing".


16th April. Farewell to Zoilo Gonzalez is to spent three months working with Prof. Catherine Henrist at the Group of Research in Energy and ENvironment from MATerials - GREENMAT (University of Liege) on the characterization of the electrocatalithic response of nano-TiO2 coatings. This research stay is suported by the JECS Trust by a Frontiers of Research project.


7th April. New Paper online. N.I. Vazquez, Z. Gonzalez, B. Ferrari and Y. Castro, “Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles by sol–gel as nanocontainer for future drug delivery applications”, B. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vid., doi: 10.1016/j.bsecv.2017.03.002 (2017).

It is focused on the synthesis of silica carriers by sol–gel from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor of silica with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as pore generating agent.

3th April.Welcome to Guillermo Frias who has joined our group as technisian supported by the "Comunidad de Madrid" (Regional Governemnt ) grants for hiring technicians suported by the European Commision through the Youth Employment Iniciative (YEI). He will be at the lab for at least two years involved in most of the research activities.


21st March. New Paper online. E. Molero, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, E. Gordo, P. Colombo, “ Ti/Ti3SiC2(/TiC) bulk and foam composites by pyrolysis of polycarbosilane and TiH2 mixtures”, Adv. Eng. Mater., 1600700. doi:10.1002/adem.201600700 (2017). It presents the shapping of Porous Titanium bodies reinforced with MAX phases from slurries and emulsions.


17th February. Dr. Begoña Ferrari with Prof. Aldo R. Boccaccini and Dr. Laxmidhar Besra are guest editing a special issue on "Electrophoretic Deposition" in the open access journal "Coatings" (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/coatings/special_issues/electrophor_depos). It has started the Call for Papers (PDF) with a deadline for manuscript submissions on 30 June 2017. Any specialist in the subject is invited to submit its papers to this special issue in OPEN ACCESS format (free for readers, with publishing fees paid by authors or their institutions).


2nd February.  We wellcome back to A. Javier Sánchez-Herencia who has quit his position as Deputy Vicepresident at the CSIC headquarters and is resuming his researching activity at the group.

FebruaryNew Paper Published.M. Dios, Z. Gonzalez, E. Gordo, B. Ferrari, “Chemical precipitation of nickel nanoparticles on Ti(C,N) suspensions focused on cermet processing”, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 63, 2-8 (2017) doi:10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2016.08.009 (2017). It presents a one-pot route through colloidal techniques to synthesize nanoparticles of metallic Ni on Ti(C,N) bigger grais on a core-shell arrangement and further processing of compacts with improved microstructural homogeneity by slip casting.


1st January. Welcome to Dr. Zoilo González to the Colloidal’s team. He has joined our research group as Post-doc Researcher, after the long collaboration maintained with us during the last four years, while he has belonged to the R+D department of the company HISBALIT, S.A.
He is to lead the research line on the synthesis and colloidal processing of nanostructures based on oxide semiconductors for the storage and generation of , contributing to the group research with his “Frontiers of research” project. In this line he is co-supervising the research work of a PhD student, J. Yus, in “Ceramic-based supercapacitors shaped by Colloidal Processing”. Moreover, he will also collaborate to develop specific tasks of the ING4MATER project and the MULTIMAT Challenge program (www.multimat.org).



24th December. We wish all of you a Merry Christmas plenty of happyness and a very happy year.


22nd December. Miguel de Dios has returned from his stay in the Institut für Struktur- und Funktionskeramik,  Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria) where he has been testing, under the supervisión of Dr. Raul Bermejo, the mechanical response of the materials he has designed and processed during his PhD research. The development of new hard metal formulations, with the use of Fe-based binders, is framed in the ING4MATER and MITICO projects in a fruitful and long collaboration (more than 6 years) between Dr. Elena Gordo, from the Grupo de Tecnología de Polvos, UC3M, and Dr. Begoña Ferrari, from the Tailoring throught Colloidal processing group, at the ICV-CSIC.


11th November Dr. Begoña Ferrari is chairing the VI Congreso Nacional de Pulvimetalurgia y I Congreso Iberoamericano de Pulvimetalurgia (www.vicnp.e) with Dr. Gemma Herranz (UCLM) and Dr. Jose Maria Cabrera (UPC). The Powder Technologies for Ceramic and Metal Processing will be diffused together for the first time!!! The Comité Español de Pulvimetalurgia, CEP-EMPA, and the Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio, SECV (www.secv.es) sponsor the initiative. Abstract submission is now open. We will meet at Ciudad Real on 7-9 June!!.

September. New Paper Published. Z. Gonzalez, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, A. Caballero, J. Morales. “Use of Polyelectrolytes for the Fabrication of Porous NiO Films by Electrophoretic Deposition for Supercapacitor Electrodes”, Electrochim. Acta, 211, 110–8 DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.06.014

23rd August. Begoña Ferrari presented the communication entitled "Inducing flocculation of TiN nanoparticles during deposition through their steric stabilization in non-aqueous suspensions" by B. Ferrari, Z. Gonzalez, C. Mendoza, E. Gordo, Y. Castro (link PDF) at the symposium Combined Electro and Electrophoretic Deposition for Advanced Materials Synthesishold during the 67th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry at The Hague


August. New Publications. E. Gordo, R.G. das Neves, B. Ferrari, A. Jimenez-Morales, A. Lima, A.C. Alves, A. M. Pinto, F. Toptan, “Corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of Ti-alumina composites”, 3rd Conference on Powder Processing Consolidation and Metallurgy of Titanium, ISBN: 978-303835539-7, Key Eng. Mater., 708, 28-37 (2016).
DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.704.28

B. Ferrari, E. Molero, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, R. Das Neves, E. Gordo, “Shaping strategies for porous Ti fabrication throughout colloidal chemistry”, 3rd Conference on Powder Processing Consolidation and Metallurgy of Titanium, ISBN: 978-303835539-7, Key Eng. Mater., 708, 406-412 (2016).
DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.704.406



2nd June. Great participation of our group in the 229th ECS Meeting held in San Diego (EEUU) with two oral presentations.

- “Capacitance Improvement of Semiconductor Electrode by LbL Modification” presented in Joint General Session (Batteries and Energy Storage and Fuels, Electrolytes, and Energy) Z. Gonzalez, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia. A. Caballero and J. Morales.

- “EPD: From order to Chaos by the LbL Modification of the particles Surfaces” presented in Electrophoretic Deposition Symposium. Z. Gonzalez, C. Filiatre, Y. Castro, C. Mendoza, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia and B. Ferrari.  

May. New Paper Published. M.Dios, Z. Gonzalez, E.Gordo and B. Ferrari. “Semiconductor-metal core-shell nanostructures by colloidal heterocoagulation in aqueous medium”, Mater. Lett. 180, 327–31(doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2016.05.179)

3rd May. Congratulations to Dr. Zoilo González who has achieved a Frontiers of Research project from the Journal of the European Ceramic Society Trust. The aim of the proyect is the development of innovative photoactive coatings by colloidal processing techniques.





1st February. Dr. Begoña Ferrari is one of the co-editors of the special issue of the Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 32, num. 2, 2016 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2015.08.026). This special issue in JECS collects a series of papers written by experts in the field of EPD applied to ceramic materials.
Two new manuscripts describing results of the group have been published in this issue:

C. Mendoza, Z. Gonzalez, Y. Castro, E. Gordo, B. Ferrari, “Improvement of TiN nanoparticles EPD inducing steric stabilization in non-aqueous suspensions”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 32 (2) 307-317 (2016).
DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2015.06.023

F. Frajkorova, E. Molero, P. Montero, M. C. Gomez-Guillen, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, B. Ferrari, “Biodegradable bi-layered coatings shaped by dipping of Ti films followed by the EPD of gelatin/hydroxyapatite composites”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 32 (2) 343-355 (2016).
DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2015.07.005


25th Jan. Thesis Defense. Esther Molero defended at the ICV her PhD Thesis entitled: "Aditivos de procesamiento en el conformado de estructuras porosas: relevancia de la sinergia partícula-gel - Processing Additives to Shape Porous Structures: Relevance on the Particle-Gel Sinergy".
The international evaluation committee was composed by Prof. David Tudela (UAM), Prof. Pedro Miranda (UNEX) Dr. Emilio López (Element Six, England), Dr. Sophia Tsipas (UC3M) and Dr. Berta Moreno (ICV-CSIC), who granted Esther´s thesis report and exposition with the Cum Laude and International mentions. Congratulations!!